Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was born in Makkah in 570 CE. His father died before his birth, and his mother also died when he was very young. Thus, he was placed under the care of his paternal grandfather, ‛Abdul-Muttalib, and, after his grandfather’s death, he was placed under the care of Abu Taalib, one of his paternal uncles.
His Life and Upbringing
Muhammad ﷺ spent forty years before he received revelation in the Makkan tribe of Quraysh into which he was born, and during this period (570-610 CE) he came to be known amongst his people as assaadiq al-ameen (the truthful and trustworthy) because of his uprightness and excellent manners. He worked as a shepherd and later as a merchant. Before the advent of Islam, he maintained the pure monotheistic beliefs of Prophet Abraham ﷺ, a haneef , worshipping Allah alone without ascribing any partners to Him and rejecting idol worship and pagan practices..
When Allah’s Messenger ﷺ turned forty, he would regularly retreat to the Cave of Hiraa’, on the peak of Mount Noor on the outskirts of Makkah, in present-day Saudi Arabia, meditating and worshiping Allah. It was then that he started receiving revelation from Allah. The first verses he received there were: “Read in the name of your Lord who created. He created man from a clot of blood. Read, and your Lord is the Most Generous; He who taught by the pen; taught man that which he knew not.” (Soorat Al-‛Alaq, 96:1-5) These verses ushered in a new era of knowledge, reading, light and guidance. The Qur’anic revelations continued until his death twentythree years later.
The Beginning of His Mission
After three years of preaching secretly, Allah’s Messenger ﷺ spent another ten years preaching Islam openly. During this period, he and his Companions were subjected to all forms of injustice and persecution at the hands of the Quraysh pagans. Not losing heart, he began presenting himself during the pilgrimage season to the pilgrims who came from various tribes, calling them to the new faith. Pilgrims from Madeenah accepted Islam and, soon afterwards, Muslims started migrating to their city in successive groups.
At the age of fifty-three, Allah’s Messenger ﷺ migrated to Madeenah, which was then called Yathrib, in 622 CE, after the Quraysh notables who had opposed his mission plotted to kill him. He spent ten years there, inviting people to Islam, and enjoined the prayer, zakaat and the other Islamic rituals on the Muslims.
His Efforts to Spread Islam
Following his migration to Madeenah (622-623 CE), Allah’s Messenger ﷺ laid the foundation for Islamic civilisation and determined the aspects of the Muslim society. He eradicated tribal fanaticism, spread knowledge, established the principles of justice, righteousness, fraternity, cooperation and organisation. Some tribes attempted to put an end to Islam once and for all, leading to a number of skirmishes and wars, but Allah ﷻ supported His Messenger and made Islam reign supreme. Then, people in Makkah and in most cities and tribes in the Arabian Peninsula willingly began entering this great religion in crowds, fully convinced that it is the true religion..
In the lunar month of Safar , 11 AH (June 632 CE), after Allah’s Messenger ﷺ disseminated the message of Islam and Allah had completed His favour upon the Muslims by perfecting His religion for them, the Messenger ﷺ had a sudden onset of fever which led to his death on Monday Rabee‛ Al-Awwal 11 AH (8 June 632 CE) at the age of 63. He was buried where he died, in the apartment of his wife ‛Aa’ishah ~, which is now housed within the Prophet’s Mosque in Madeenah.
|Our Prophet’s Name|
|Muhammad ﷺ was the son of ‛Abdullaah, son of ‛Abd Al-Muttalib of the Banu Haashim clan of the Quraysh. He was indisputably the noblest of all Arabs..|
|A Messenger to All Mankind|
|Allah ﷺ sent Muhammad ﷺ as a messenger to people of all races, classes and colours, and He made it everybody’s duty to obey him, as the Qur’an states, “Say: ‘O Mankind! I am the Messenger of Allah to you all.’” (Soorat Al-A‛raaf, 7:158)|
|The Qur’an was Revealed to Him|
|Allah ﷺ sent down to him the greatest of His divine scriptures, the Holy Qur’an, which falsehood can reach neither from before it nor from behind it. (Soorat Fussilat, 41:42)|
|He was the Seal of the Prophets and Messengers|
|Muhammad ﷺ was the final prophet sent by Almighty Allah; therefore, there will be no prophet after him, as evidenced by the verse: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but the Messenger of Allah and the Final Seal of the Prophets.” (Soorat Al-Ahzaab, 33:40)|